Neither shocking nor surprising but certainly a cause for concern. Indonesia\'s Corruption Perception Index has dropped from a score of 40 (on a scale of 0-100) in 2019 to 37 in 2020.
Neither shocking nor surprising but certainly a cause for concern. Indonesia\'s Corruption Perception Index has dropped from a score of 40 (on a scale of 0-100) in 2019 to 37 in 2020. In the data released by Transparency International Indonesia in 2019, Indonesia ranked 85th and in 2020 ranked 102nd out of 180 countries.
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The higher the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) score of a country, it is perceived that the country will see less corruption. On the contrary, the lower the CPI of a country, corruption in that country is perceived as more rampant. Indonesia\'s highest CPI score was 40 points in 2019 and the lowest was 17 points (in the 0-100 range or 1.7 in the 0-10 range) in 1999. Indonesia\'s average CPI for 21 years was only 26.84, an indication of the acute nature of corruption.
They assess investment-economic risks; the performance of bureaucracy, politics and democracy.
A significant decline in the Indonesian CPI was seen in 1999. Indonesia\'s CPI score also fell from 2.4 in 2006 to 2.3 in 2007 (in 0-10 score range). However, the decline in Indonesia\'s CPI 2020 was due to the decline in indicators from five data provider agencies that measure corruption eradication from various aspects. They assess investment-economic risks; the performance of bureaucracy, politics and democracy.
First, the Global Insight Country Risk Rating gave 35 points (decreasing by 12 points). Second, the PRS International Country Risk Guide gave 50 points (down 8 points). Third, IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook, 43 points (decreasing by 5 points). Fourth, the PERC Asia Risk Guide, 32 points (down 3 points). Fifth, Varieties of Democracy Project, 26 points (decreasing by 2 points).
Indicators from three other institutions were stagnant: the World Economic Forum EOS (46 points), the Bertelsmann Transformation Index (36), and the Economic Intelligence Unit Country Ratings (37). The increase occurred only in the World Justice Project — Rule of Law Index, 23 points (up 2 points).
Institutions that gave a lower score indicate an increasing risk to Indonesia\'s economy and politics in the face of corruption. Besides that, Indonesia\'s competitiveness has also declined amid increasingly fierce global competition.
Here the various economic policy packages from the government for deregulation and liberalization to boost investment and economic growth in Indonesia do not attract risk assessment institutions to give positive assessments. They even lowered their respective indicator scores. The increase in risk factors seems to be related to the Job Creation Bill, which has caused controversy, commotion and massive protests. Even though many elements of society opposed it, the draft law was still passed by the DPR (House of Representatives) to become Law Number 11 of 2020 concerning Job Creation on Oct. 5, 2020, and was enacted on Nov. 2, 2020.
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The Job Creation Law, which is intended by President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo to cut barriers and overlapping regulations in order to achieve rising investment and economic growth, was not seen by the institutions providing the indicators to reduce the risk of corruption. They perceive that the Job Creation Law does not create investment and business-economic ventures free from corruption such as bribes, gratuities, and political lobbying involving haram (illegitimate) agreements.
In the midst of the worsening Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia, backsliding of democracy has occurred simultaneously with the increasing symptoms of authoritarianism while ignoring democracy.
Here it is necessary to look at political indicators. The Varieties of Democracy Project (V-Dem) lowered Indonesia\'s score by two points. This decline is not surprising. In the midst of the worsening Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia, backsliding of democracy has occurred simultaneously with the increasing symptoms of authoritarianism while ignoring democracy.
Once again, the decline in Indonesia\'s CPI is predictable. It is even strange if Indonesia\'s CPI 2020 increases or persists with a score of 40 amidst increasing political symptoms that are not conducive for the corruption eradication. Indonesia\'s political condition, which has changed since President Jokowi\'s second presidency, has become increasingly lenient and permissive to corruption. President Jokowi\'s oligarchy and large political coalition after the 2019 elections and the formation of the cabinet in October 2019 did not provide much room for corruption eradication.
The most important political event related to corruption eradication is the revision of the KPK (Corruption Eradication Commission) Law, namely from Law Number 30 of 2002 to Law Number 19 of 2019. The government and the DPR stated that the revision was to strengthen the KPK. In reality, as previously reminded by a number of civil society figures, Law No. 19/2019 makes the KPK no longer effective in fighting corruption. Various surveys have shown a decline in performance and public trust in the KPK.
All of these arguments seem to be justified by the Coordinating Political, Legal and Security Affairs Minister Mahfud MD when responding to the decline in Indonesia\'s CPI. The decline in positive perceptions about corruption eradication, according to him, could be related to the controversy over the revision of the KPK Law which has led to the perception that it will weaken corruption. "Any perception can emerge even though the facts may be true or may not be true. This will create a bad perception in the eyes of the international community. This bad perception is also caused by the rampant cutting of corruption convict sentences by the Supreme Court or even being free in cassation," said Mahfud.
The decline in Indonesia\'s CPI is clearly not just a number, not just a statistic as well. The decline in the CPI also reflects the deterioration of the substance of national life for the creation of good governance, starting from the economy, investment, politics, to socio-cultural system.
There was also a minister involved in a baby lobster corruption case The mitigation of the Covid-19 outbreak with an unlimited budget was utilized by officials for massive corruption.
Corruption that violates law, religion, civility and propriety seems rampant. A former Cabinet minister was accused of pocketing social assistance. There was also a minister involved in a baby lobster corruption case The mitigation of the Covid-19 outbreak with an unlimited budget was utilized by officials for massive corruption. Tens of trillions of rupiah the Jiwasraya and Asabri insurance scandals (Editorial, Kompas, 1/2/2021).
Therefore, Indonesia is in an emergency of corruption, rolling into a dark bottomless hole (abyss). What should be done? Eradicating corruption cannot be done without determination. Corruption as an "extraordinary crime" must be eradicated not only by conventional laws but also through policy breakthroughs and political action.
For this reason, President Jokowi should show his political will. The President must not forgive corrupt public officials, create a climate of maximum punishment, in terms of regulations and economic and socio-political sanctions for the corrupt public officials.
Next, President Jokowi and the DPR need to strengthen anticorruption regulations by issuing a Perppu (regulation in lieu of the law) to adopt again a stronger KPK Law. At the same time, it is also necessary to rebuild the KPK to be more independent, authoritative, trustworthy, and effective in eradicating corruption.
AZYUMARDI AZRA, History professor, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University (UIN) Jakarta; Member of the Cultural Commission, the Indonesian Academy of Sciences (AIPI)
(This article was translated by Hyginus Hardoyo).