8.8 Million in Greater Jakarta Hard to Access Public Transportation
This found that 20.5 million Jabodetabek residents lived in high-density areas. Of this total, 8.8 million residents are unserved by mass transit services.
Public transportation coverage is limited in Jakarta and its buffer zones. Unsurprisingly, millions of residents find it difficult to access public transportation, so end up choosing alternative modes of transportation.
JAKARTA, KOMPAS — A total of 8.8 million people in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi are beyond the reach of public transportation. The results of a Kompas analysis have found that public transportation in Jakarta and its buffer zones has uneven coverage. Mass transit services in Jakarta covers 96.1 percent of the city’s population. Meanwhile, it covers just 26.2 percent of the total population in in Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi.
Public transportation coverage was analyzed by superimposing the population data map and a distribution map showing bus stops and train stations. The population data was obtained from the 2015Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) project, while the distribution map of transit stops was derived from Moovit, a transportation and journey planner app.
The mass transit services covered in the analysis comprised Transjakarta, Transjabodetabek, Trans Pakuan, Trans Patriot, Trans Tangerang and the Jakarta Residential Connexion (JRC) bus services, Mikrotrans, the Commuter Line, Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Jakarta and Light Rail Transit (LRT) Jakarta. Public transportation that is not yet integrated with the mass transit system was not taken into account.
The bus stops and train stations covered were still listed as active according to the relevant bus or train service. In order to determine the coverage of the mass transit service, each bus stop and station was allowed a maximum radius of 1 kilometer to measure accessibility. However, Mikrotrans bus stops were allotted a maximum radius of 500 meters. The radiuses of all bus stops and train stations in Greater Jakarta (Jabodetabek) were combined and overlaid with data on zones with a population density of 12,000 people or more per square kilometer.
This found that 20.5 million Jabodetabek residents lived in high-density areas. Of this total, 8.8 million residents are unserved by mass transit services. Breaking this down, 70.2 percent of residents in both the regency and city of Bogor are unserved by public transportation. Next, 70.5 percent of residents are unserved in the regency and city of Bekasi, 77.1 percent are unserved in Tangerang regency, Tangerang city and South Tangerang, and 78.5 percent in the city of Depok, whereas only 3.9 percent of Jakarta residents are unserved.
Several high-density areas in Bogor, Depok Tangerang, Bekasi (Bodetabek) are not covered by mass transit routes, such as Gunung Putri and Klapanunggal in the eastern part of Bogor regency.
In general, areas that have seen growth over the last 15 years will only be served by the LRT Jabodebek in mid-2022. Cikupa and Tangerang, which have seen growth over the last few years, still have no public transportation nodes, either. North Bekasi has minimum access to electric trains (KRL) as the region’s main means of public transportation. To reach a KRL station from North Bekasi, residents have to rely on local minivans that have varying standards of service.
“I haven’t traveled by minivan for a long time. We also have to wait a long time for a minivan. It’s troublesome if we have luggage, it’s cramped,” said Jumini, a resident of Pondok Ungu, Bekasi. Several years ago, minivans still served the housing complex where Jumini lives. But now she has to walk more than 1 kilometer to reach a minivan route.
In order to ascertain the level of difficulty of community mobility in an area, a Kompas team conducted a simulation by trialing all modes of public transportation to reach the National Monument (Monas) in Central Jakarta. Three locations were selected for the simulation that had high density but did not have public transportation service: a housing complex in Babelan district, Bekasi regency; a housing complex in Klapanunggal district, and a housing complex in Cikupa district.
The findings showed that, in Bekasi, minivan routes no longer passed a certain road because local residents were not interested in the service. In Bogor, minivan passengers must change to another minivan plying the same route. The quality of minivan services is also poor. The travel time from the three locations to Monas is twice as long as traveling by motorcycle or a private car.
On the other hand, the 2014 Commuter Survey by Statistics Indonesia (BPS) found that 23.6 percent of all Jabodetabek commuters used public transportation. But by the 2019 Commuter Survey, this figure had fallen to 20.4 percent. This indicates that the increase in the number of passengers using KRL Jabodetabek and Transjakarta still did not balance growth in the number of private vehicle users.
The total number of Transjakarta passengers also grew. In 2014, Transjakarta served 112 million passengers, with the figure rising 69 percent in 2018 to 190 million passengers.
According to BPS data from 2014 to 2019, the number of passengers using KRL Jabodetabek each year increased from 208.5 million passengers in 2014 to 336 million passengers in 2019. The total number of Transjakarta passengers also grew. In 2014, Transjakarta served 112 million passengers, with the figure rising 69 percent in 2018 to 190 million passengers.
Yet, the BPS also noted that in 2020, Jakarta had a total of 3.4 million private cars, an increase of 30.9 percent compared to five years previously. Meanwhile, Bodetabek had 1.6 million private cars, an increase of 42.5 percent. Similarly, Jakarta had a total of 16.1 million motorcycles (up 21 percent) and 8 million motorcycles in Bodetabek (up 7.1 percent).
In 2016, the government introduced an urban transportation policy that used the “push and pull” strategy, encouraging the public to stop using private vehicles while urging them to use public transportation. The strategy of encouraging people to abandon the use of private cars employed various measures, including the odd-even license plate and three-in-one policies, progressive parking fees and the electronic road pricing (ERP) system. The strategy of attracting people to use public transportation included improving mass transit services so they either equaled or surpassed the benefits of using private vehicles.
Traffic director Sigit Irfansyah of the Jabodetabek Transportation Management Agency admitted that the current coverage of mass transit services between Jakarta and its buffer zones was very uneven. Public transportation coverage was seen as very crucial to drawing people away from using private vehicles. Unless public transportation was close to residents, it would certainly not be their preferred choice of mobility.
“In its implementation, sometimes the push is the easiest. It requires no money to push, only policies. If we pull, there must be investment. Sometimes it’s forgotten [that] when the push is running, the pull is slow,” he said.
(This article was translated by Aris Prawira)